TAMAKI DRIVE PROTECTION SOCIETY INC.
Tamaki Drive History Resources
Heritage articles & "Castles in the Sand" book extract as follows:
Drive heritage ( includes some history)
or PROTECTION: OUR
RESPONSIBILITY FOR THE COAST
Protection Society looks forward to a stimulating evening and welcomes
environmental law expert, Environmental Defence Society
Children at the
beach are fascinated by both the water and the sand. Building sandcastles
and moats at the waters edge they quickly learn that the old saying”
time and tide wait for no man” means that they cannot stop natural
processes. At times, natural processes have severely affected Eastern Bays
People choose to
live in Eastern Bays because of the beaches, and feel a special
responsibility to wards the preservation of the coastal environment with
the pohutukawa clad cliffs and
beaches. For some years the trees were protected by the District Plan.
This may change with changes to RMA, but the future of the trees will be
decided by people.
of the trees is a matter for us, the beaches depend on the effects of
coastal processes: storms and tides, and the effort we make to deal with
Kohimarama and St
Heliers have also been expensively resanded, but in the last case the
reason was not just to create a recreation asset, but to avoid the
This was not the
end of Eastern Bays problems. A $4m bill to halt clifftop cracks was reported by Bernard Orsman http://www.nzherald.co.nz/bernard-orsman/news/headlines.cfm?a_id=67
in the Herald June 10,
2008. Emergency measures costing $4 million were needed to stabilise
clifftop cracks that have appeared in a section of one of
But erosion and
damage is not only an
author and Kohimarama Yacht club member
Raewyn warns, “As the sea level
rises, this pushes the inter-tidal zone further inland. If this movement
is blocked by a fixed structure such as a seawall, the high tide can
eventually lap the wall resulting in the loss of any dry beach. The
inter-tidal zone is reduced in width, a process known as ‘coastal
squeeze.’ Sea walls can also become undermined and many need replacement
over time – usually with bigger more expensive and often unsightly
“One way of addressing this
problem is to replenish sand on the beach to create a buffer in the event
of storms and also to retain the beach for recreation and amenity. However
as sea level rises and storm activity increases the cost of sand
replenishment will increase and may prove prohibitive. Planning needs to
start now to identify how the coastline in areas such as the Eastern Bays
will be managed over the next 100 years.”
coastal zone requires a level of expertise which may not be available to
the many local authorities throughout NZ which continually deal with
issues of coastal erosion, agricultural runoff and the effects of
times an even more serious concern is the quality of the sea water. If we
cannot swim at the beaches because of pollution or harmful organisms will
we still approve of the costs of protection? Should those costs include
regulations to prevent pollutants and to ensure water which is both
swimable and safe for fish and sea creatures?
Raewyn considers, “ To
avoid ad hoc and short term decision making on these very important
strategic issues (including 3-yearly electoral cycles), we need an
independent body which will oversee the public interest in how we
manage the coast in the long term - a New Zealand Coastal Commission.
Such a Commission can bring together the best expertise and thinking on
these issues nationwide and develop appropriate responses and oversee
This solution is
explained in fascinating detail in Raewyn’s newly published book,
“Castles in the Sand”. Raewyn will explain coastal issues and possible
solutions with an impressive Powerpoint show as
members and all concerned for the coast are warmly welcomed to this
important meeting. This presentation will be at
, following the
copies of Castles in the Sand will be available.
Coastal protection comes
at a cost
Like every city sited at sea level across the world, natural process will
dictate our future. So far we have been lucky. Millions of dollars have
restored our precious beach playgrounds and now, and we hope, for the
future. But the durability of that future is not certain. Experts warn of
world wide changes that one day will impact on our beaches. Already we
know, and many residents will recall only too well the power of natural
forces, and some of the costs.
Many are not known, but include: Destruction of Peacock St houses 1953,
1965. Removal of slips along Tamaki Drive during the last
50 years :Kohimarama to
Ngapipi Road. Houses destroyed by slips on Shore Rd and the
Recent Costs : Resanding of 10
beaches in Auckland City
Mission Bay : $2.2
: $6 million.
:$4.3 million (includes building new seawalls)
The Parnell Baths : $242,000 spent on stabilising the slip area and on a
geotechnical report by engineering firm Tonkin and Taylor. The remainder
of the cleanup cost about $25,000.
26 November 2008:
The New Zealand Land Transport Agency approved a
funding assistance rate of 43% of the costs of Cliff Road, St Heliers palisade wall protection
works. The estimated cost was $1.9 million and (NZ Transport
Agency’s share $817,000). The
construction cost for Stage 2 of the project
was estimated at $3.175 million with the remaining $1.275 million being
fully funded by Auckland City Council. In its reason for the
the LTA stated “the
assessment profile for this
activity has been determined as being of high seriousness and urgency,
medium effectiveness and high efficiency.”
problems have been solved, but can we afford to be complacent, when
scientists predict a rise in sea levels. Will coastal protection always be
of concern, and what is the best way to achieve this?
for a NZ Coastal Commission by Raewyn Peart.
Increasing coastal hazards is only
one of the issues which will increase in importance when managing our
coastline in the future. Increasing population pressure and more people
wanting to live and recreate by the coast will place increasing
development pressure on our coastline, particular in areas in and within
commuting distance of Auckland.
Currently there is no body which
is ensuring that the public interest in how the coast is managed and
developed is looked after – and that the big issues such as coastal
hazards are being addressed in a strategic manner, taking into account the
long term scenario.
The Environmental Defence Society
is calling for the establishment of a New Zealand Coastal Commission to
play this role. The Commission could have a number of roles. It could be
tasked with identifying those areas of the coast which should be ‘no
go’ for urban development in the long-term: a network of ‘Heritage
Coasts’ which would be placed under stronger management control to
create a legacy for future generations. This would help ensure that people
living in growing urban areas such as Auckland, are able to access and
enjoy undeveloped parts of the coastline.
The Commission could be tasked
with developing and overseeing the implementation of the New Zealand
Coastal Policy Statement –to provide clear direction as to how the coast
is to be managed and include measurable objectives to be achieved within
short and longer-term timeframes. This would include addressing key issues
such as coastal hazards and coastal amenity.
The Commission could prepare a
‘Coastal Design Guide’ which would provide guidance to councils and
explain what both ‘best practice’ and bad coastal development look
like. The Commission could also prepare a regular ‘State of Our
Coasts’ report which would critically evaluate the effectiveness of
coastal management and the outcomes being achieved.
Also, the Commission could act as
an advocate for good coastal outcomes, advising the government on any
needed changes to the coastal legislative and policy frameworks and become
a party to resource consent applications in its own right.
TDPS PUBLIC MEETING: BACHS
OR CASTLES BY THE SEA?
Looking at the growing demand for second homes among
the increasingly affluent growing population there are two trends: the
rural lifestyle blocks, which may carve up prime agricultural or
horticultural land, and the popular bach by the sea, which in many new
coastal subdivisions will be a substantial and luxurious home.
These issues were well illustrated in a compelling
presentation by Raewyn Peart, at the Tamaki Drive Protection Society AGM
and Public Meeting held on 10 November at Kohi Yacht Club.
Environmental law expert, EDS Senior Policy Analyst
and Director, noted author and Kohimarama Yacht club member Raewyn Peart
carried out extensive research for her recent book, “Castles in the
She explained how we arrived at where we are: the
formation of the coast by natural processes which created dunes, sandspits,
beaches, extensive wetlands, and cliffs.
“Māori modified the coast, but the impact of
European settlement was much greater with extensive forest clearances,
drainage of wetlands, reclamations and dune modification.” Yet even
though it is highly modified, New Zealanders strongly value the rural
coastline. There is a long history of people camping and building holiday
homes on the coast.”
“Post WW11 there has been a real flowering of beach
culture” when people were able to take annual holidays, to buy a small
car, access remote places and build small bachs tucked away behind the
But big changes occurred in the 1990’s. Houses were
much larger, located in more prominent positions and ridgelines.
at statistics, Raewyn showed that Coromandel has the most bachs, followed
by Rodney, where there has also been a large increase in lifestyle blocks.
Small holiday settlements have grown in size and new types have been built
such as the Omaha resort-style
developments, high rise at Mt Maunganui and Orewa, and also an increase in
rural residential living. The result Raewyn says “is a loss of coastal
wilderness, especially within 2 hours of Auckland. Many more new
developments will occur because of rising affluence, increasing emphasis
on lifestyle and increasing size of the age groups which can afford
Raewyn listed impacts of coastal development:
The result is a loss of coastal natural character and in some areas,
an increase in the number of coastal hazards. This can lead to the a
demand for seawalls which can be unsightly and result in the loss of
public access and dry beach at high tide.
Weak District Plan provisions. In some cases no
identification of outstanding coastal landscapes, and typically weak rules
to protect landscapes when they are identified.
Non-complying activities frequently gain consent on the
basis that their “effects are no more than minor” so people cannot
rely on what is in the District Plan.
Private plan changes, where developers can seek radical
changes to a current District Plan to facilitate their proposals.
A weak New Zealand Coastal Policy statement which has been
pretty much ignored at a district level.
Raewyn considers that
these factors mean there is no certainty for the coast, and no certainty
of protection for undeveloped areas. “All of the coast outside of
reserve land is potentially open to development. Even if the first
development proposal is defeated, others will inevitably follow.”
should we do?
Keep houses away from headlands, ridgelines and the coastal
Use sympathetic building design
Maintain clear boundaries between urban and rural
Keep rural residential development rural
Ensure adequate public access. The lot sizes in rural
residential subdivisions are often too large to trigger the legal
requirement to create esplanade reserves, and with private roads and gates
the public are excluded from accessing the coastline.
development with restoration, replanting, pest control.
Design coastal settlements where development is appropriate,
fits in and restores the coastal environment and provides for
public access and enjoyment of the coast.
Where development is not appropriate, provide adequate
Raewyn concluded that
action should be taken now to provide for better coastal protection. She
A stronger coastal
A NZ Coastal Commission, linked
to the Environmental Protection Agency
or a Foreshore
and Seabed National body.
A New Zealand Coastal Trust
to support covenants and voluntary protection
of privately owned coastal land.
The presentation was followed by lively questioning
about the powers of a Coastal Commission. Would this take away private
property rights and remove decision making from the local level?.
A popular alternative was suggested by Cr Doug
Armstrong, who said that government should buy the coastal land, if the
public wanted it.
Raewyn pointed out that no
one has an unfettered right to develop rural land for urban purposes.
show that the undeveloped coast is more highly valued, and she warned “We
cannot buy it all.” Coastal Commissions were successful in a number of
Raewyn was warmly thanked for her stimulating
presentation which was most informative, and a great introduction to the excellent
book and deserved a wider audience.
For Further information:
Environmental Defence Society: eds.org.nz
Home and Away: our responsibility for the coast in the future
Sited on two harbours
With increasing demands for second homes and sea
views we can ask if the new Auckland Council will add other coastal areas
of outstanding natural beauty to the current portfolio, or whether we must
rely on current law and safeguards.
Will the RMA save the coastal wilderness?
Questioners at the recent
These plans are made under the Resource Management
Act 1991 which states that it is
a matter of national importance to recognise and provide for “ the
preservation of the natural character of the coastal environment
(including the coastal marine area), wetlands, and lakes and rivers and
their margins, and the protection of them from inappropriate subdivision,
use, and development.” ( s 6(a)).
In addition, public access must be maintained and
At the national level, the RMA gave priority to the
coast by requiring that at all times there be a
New Zealand Coastal Policy Statement, prepared by the Minister of
This Statement was gazetted in May 1994 listing national priorities for the preservation of the natural character of the coastal environment of
Local authorities must give effect to the NZCPS through their plans and policy statements. Resource consent decision-makers must also have regard to relevant NZCPS policies.
Statement was reviewed in 2004. Key findings showed that it was only
partially effective in influencing district plans, and only generally
referred to in resource consent applications. The review recommended that
the Statement provide “improved policy guidance on topics including a
definition of the coastal environment, identification of coastal
landscapes and seascapes, and criteria for assessing appropriate use and
development of our coast.”
The Proposed NZCPS 2008, can be viewed on the website of the Department
of Conservation, but there is no information on its progress.
in the Proposed NZCPS included:
In conclusion the RMA provides
a system for coastal management and could save the “ coastal
wilderness”. The fact that recent research discovered disappointing
results means that in the end it will be a matter of political will and of
public demand. The NZCPS could give direction to national priorities.
Regional and District
plans could give more weight to nationally important matters and where
necessary prohibit inappropriate activities.
Alternative methods should
be explored and conservation efforts of coastal property owners encouraged
landscape areas could be bought as public reserves.
Drive (Vellenoweth Green), St Heliers
Drive - Bastion Point, Mission Bay
Savage Memorial and
Kohimarama Beach Changing
Drive, Mission Bay
Trevor Moss Davis Memorial
Drive, Mission Bay (in cliff face and top, opposite Tamaki Yacht
Gun Emplacements (5 in
Drive, Mission Bay (clifftop behind Orakei Jetty)
Gun Emplacements (4) and
Drive, Okahu Bay
Okahu Bay Changing Rooms
Drive, St Heliers
St Heliers Changing Rooms
Drive 14, Orakei
Pumping Station (Navy
League Headquarters - Hammerheads Restaurant 1995)
Drive 40, Mission Bay
Melanesian Mission House
Heliers Bay Road 32-42, St Heliers
St Heliers Library
In addition to these special places, the Plan
recognises Tamaki Drive as a Scenic Way, in order to protect its special
visual and scenic qualities. Objective 5C.7.7.1 (iv) states that new
buildings should be “designed in harmony with those existing buildings
and structures which reflect the historical and maritime character of the
area; and that their scale, form, colour and siting does not detract from
the natural scenic qualities of the area.”
This gives new development proposals a strong message
which in appropriate cases is reinforced by the concerns of residents, and
submissions from Residents Associations and Tamaki Drive Protection
The Plan’s Resource Management Strategy states “
The conservation of heritage resources must acknowledge present day needs
and circumstances. It must be managed and guided in an appropriate manner
to ensure that heritage qualities are not devalued or compromised by
development or change. Where feasible, such qualities should be enhanced
and restored in the process of development or change.”
Juliet Yates, Tamaki Drive Protection Society. 19 March 2010
Heritage Sites: guardianship and protection
of stewardship or guardianship is also evolving in overseas countries to
protect heritage. Implementation of the principle of stewardship has
implications for any owner of heritage land or buildings.
Land valued for rating purposes uses the formula of
the ‘highest and best use’ of land.
The “best use” under the stewardship principle
will not look at development potential and may seek an enhanced
status quo, with a conservation and management plan which expresses
cultural and spiritual values, as well as physical management.
When World Heritage sites are involved, development
or exploration of physical resources may be precluded. For example, the
Tongariro World Heritage site manager reported that, “World Heritage
status has helped emphasize that further developments such as extending
ski field boundaries or accommodation would not be appropriate.” http://whc.unesco.org/pg.cfm?cid=283 15
The private property owner may find that World
Heritage status applied to his or her property introduces protection
principles which over-ride development rights. Just as the owner of land
through which a stream flows must preserve water quality, so under new
regulatory regimes world heritage must be preserved.
In 1972 when the World Heritage Convention came into
force, the main issue was compilation of the heritage inventory and
assessment of outstanding universal value.
The World Heritage Committee lists many successes in
its newsletters, but the most striking success is the large number of
states which are parties to the Convention, and their acceptance that
World Heritage listing is a prized achievement and is a contribution to
The protection of world heritage had roots in the
classical tradition of
The expansion of world heritage from
Heritage, to many indigenous peoples is not lost or
ancient civilisations, nor tradeable masterpieces of art but the essence
of who they are in relation to their people and the land.
Protection will depend on local cultural values, on local laws and
The outstanding universal value can consider the
contribution of cultural heritage to the global diversity of cultures.
In future natural heritage will receive more
attention, as environmental impact assessments reveal fragile ecosystems
and problems of sustainability. “Pyramids
and palaces, temples and churches, obelisks and victory arches have too
often been erected purely to feed the ego of the builder,”
Jim Eagles, in “Self-
tributes set in stone” New Zealand Herald, D2 21 June 2005.
Monuments erected as symbols of personal political
power can be rebuilt, or replaced by new icons. But insults suffered by
the environment cannot easily be repaired.
The grandeur of lost glaciers cannot be
reconstructed, nor can a ravaged rainforest be repaired within our
lifetime, or that of the next generation.
Even more acute is the loss by indigenous people when
natural sites with intrinsic spiritual and intangible cultural values are
destroyed, severing the roots connecting the people and the land.
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